proteinogenic amino acids

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  • Many important proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids also play critical non-protein roles within the body.
  • Thus, non-proteinogenic amino acids would have been excluded by the contingent evolutionary success of nucleotide-based life forms.
  • Protein nutrition is complex because any proteinogenic amino acid may be the limiting factor in metabolism.
  • Naturally-occurring cyanotoxins can also include non-proteinogenic amino acids.
  • Some non-proteinogenic amino acids are not found in proteins.
  • It also focuses on an expanded genetic code and the incorporation of non-proteinogenic amino acids into proteins.
  • Nine proteinogenic amino acids are called "essential" for humans because they cannot be created from other compounds by the human body and, so, must be taken in as food.
  • This non-proteinogenic amino acid is classified as a polar base.
  • Despite not being encoded by the genetic code as proteinogenic amino acids, some non-standard amino acids are nevertheless found in proteins.
  • In cells, especially autotrophs, several non-proteinogenic amino acids are found as metabolic intermediates.
  • Together with cysteine, methionine is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids.
  • Threonine is one of two proteinogenic amino acids with two chiral centers.
  • Having the suspected first two triplets, they pondered which amino acids appeared the first, or more generally in which order all the proteinogenic amino acids emerged.
  • Leucine and isoleucine belong to the proteinogenic amino acids; the others are non-natural.
  • In addition to primary metabolism, several non-proteinogenic amino acids are precursors or the final production in secondary metabolism to make compounds such as toxins.
  • Peptaibols are biologically active peptides containing between seven and twenty amino acid residues, some of which are non-proteinogenic amino acids.
  • The chemical structures of the 22 standard amino acids, along with their chemical properties, are described more fully in the article on these proteinogenic amino acids.
  • Non-proteinogenic amino acids that are found in proteins are formed by post-translational modification, which is modification after translation during protein synthesis.
  • Several non-proteinogenic amino acids are toxic due to their ability to mimic certain properties of proteinogenic amino acids, such as thialysine.
  • The usual mechanisms, which produce amino acids and combine them into proteins, then produce novel or non-proteinogenic amino acids and incorporate them to make novel proteins the same way.
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How proteinogenic amino acids gets used