interstitial pneumonitis

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  • Acute interstitial pneumonitis occurs most frequently among people older than forty years old.
  • Sixty percent of people with acute interstitial pneumonitis will die in the first six months of illness.
  • Humans and animals born lacking SP-C tend to develop progressive interstitial pneumonitis.
  • The interstitial pneumonitis is not dose dependent, but is more common in patients with underlying lung disease.
  • Acute interstitial pneumonitis typically progresses rapidly, with hospitalization and mechanical ventilation often required only days to weeks after initial symptoms of cough, fever, and difficulties breathing develop.
  • The major exception is usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP), which has very characteristic features, and may be confidently diagnosed on HRCT alone.
  • The most common symptoms of acute interstitial pneumonitis are highly productive cough with expectoration of thick mucus, fever, and difficulties breathing.
  • Chronic pulmonary reactions caused by nitrofurantoin include diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or both.
  • Acute interstitial pneumonitis (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia or Hamman-Rich syndrome) is a rare, severe lung disease that usually affects otherwise healthy individuals.
  • Acute interstitial pneumonitis was first described in 1935 by Louis Hamman and Arnold Rich, and given the name Hamman-Rich syndrome.
  • It can be classified into acute interstitial pneumonitis, blood pneumonitis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, radiation pneumonitis, and uremic pneumonitis.
  • AIPT may manifest as chronic interstitial pneumonitis, organising pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary mass, or nodules.
  • Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (also called lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis or LIP) is a syndrome secondary to autoimmune and other lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • The mechanism of the interstitial pneumonitis caused by sirolimus and other macrolide MTOR inhibitors is unclear, and may have nothing to do with the MTOR pathway.
  • While HRCT may be able to identify pulmonary fibrosis, it may not always be able to further categorize the fibrosis to a specific pathological type (e.g., non-specific intersitial pneumonitis or desquamative interstitial pneumonitis).
  • Acute interstitial pneumonitis is often categorized as both an interstitial lung disease and a form of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but it is distinguished from the chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Acute pneumonias are further divided into the classic bacterial bronchopneumonias (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae), the atypical pneumonias (such as the interstitial pneumonitis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae), and the aspiration pneumonia syndromes.

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