epigenetic alteration

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  • However, it has become apparent that cancer is also driven by epigenetic alterations.
  • Such field defects (second level from bottom of figure) may have multiple mutations and epigenetic alterations.
  • In addition, DNA damages can also give rise to epigenetic alterations during DNA repair.
  • Accumulated DNA damage can also cause epigenetic alterations due to errors during DNA repair.
  • It would also be expected that many of the epigenetic alterations present in tumors may have occurred in pre-neoplastic field defects.
  • These errors can give rise to mutations or epigenetic alterations.
  • Likewise, epigenetic alterations present in tumors may have occurred in pre-neoplastic field defects.
  • Such mutations and epigenetic alterations can give rise to cancer (see malignant neoplasms).
  • Each of these epigenetic alterations serves to regulate gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence.
  • Epigenetic alterations are reversible meaning that they can be targets for therapy.
  • Once substance use commences, however, epigenetic alterations may further exacerbate the biological and behavioural changes associated with addiction.
  • Epigenetic alterations are as important as genetic mutations in a cell's transformation to cancer.
  • In epigenetic alterations in cancer, DNA methylation is the most studied, although it is not the only alteration that can occur.
  • Epigenetic alterations are much more frequent in colon cancer than genetic (mutational) alterations.
  • If metabolic disturbances occur during critical time windows of development, the resulting epigenetic alterations can lead to permanent changes in tissue and organ structure or function and predispose individuals to disease.
  • Furthermore, incomplete DNA repair can give rise to epigenetic alterations or epimutations.
  • In addition, faulty repair of these accumulated DNA damages may give rise to epigenetic alterations or epimutations.
  • Mutations, however, may not be as frequent in cancers as epigenetic alterations.
  • The central elements of DNA damage, epigenetic alterations and deficient DNA repair in progression to cancer are shown in red.
  • It appears that epigenetic alterations in DNA repair genes are central to carcinogenesis.