bony projections

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  • The tail may have been relatively short, given the reduction of bony projections on known tail vertebrae.
  • The scales have rough posterior edges and this fish has no large bony projections.
  • Large bony projections on the skeleton likely served as attachments for strong muscles.
  • The animal's spine has bony projections that mesh to form a very strong, yet flexible backbone.
  • A row of sharp bony projections in their upper jaw makes it nearly impossible for them to release prey after taking it in their mouth, in some cases leading to death by choking.
  • Over the eye sockets, two bony projections are formed by the lacrimal and prefrontal bones.
  • They also had distinctively deep jaws, with large downward bony projections that would have anchored powerful chewing muscles in life.
  • Other related crocodilians such as Aldabrachampsus also had similar bony projections, although in Aldabrachampsus these projections were more like crests than horns.
  • Another unique feature can be found in the back vertebrae, which show bifurcated spinous processes, resulting in a double row of bony projections along the top of the spine.
  • Dinocephalians included both herbivorous and carnivorous forms, and many species had thickened skulls with many knobs and bony projections.
  • These fractures occur at apophyses (bony projections that lack secondary ossification centers).
  • The tail was long, with over 20 vertebrae, and was partially stiffened by long, thin bony projections.
  • If there is a bony projection from the calcaneus, it should be shaved off with the chisel. Cited from Manual of Surgery, by Alexis Thomson and Alexander Miles
  • Osteophytes, commonly referred to as bone spurs or parrot beak, are bony projections that form along joint margins.
  • They are displaced when the fossae are occupied by the bony projections of the ulna and radius.
  • The shape of skulls differs considerably between specimens, with variation in ornamentation and bony projections.
  • They are not to be confused with osteophytes, which are abnormal bony projections in joint spaces.
  • The most derived pareiasaurs such as Elginia and Arganaceras have highly ornamented skulls with many bony projections.
  • The nasal horncore, the bony projection from which the nose horn grew, is flattened and blade-like.
  • In other rhamphorhynchids such as Dorygnathus, these bony projections are extremely elongated, and the zygapophyses are long enough to overlap a series of vertebrae behind them.
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