at the axon

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  • When a neuron fires an action potential, it is initiated at the axon initial segment.
  • The action potential generated at the axon hillock propagates as a wave along the axon.
  • Once this initial action potential is initiated, principally at the axon hillock, it propagates down the length of the axon.
  • The impulse flow is turned on and as a result 5-HT is released at the axon terminal.
  • Summation is the adding together of these impulses at the axon hillock.
  • Stimulation of a motor neuron causes it to release acetylcholine, which is stored up in vesicles at the axon terminal.
  • Fast retrograde transport returns used synaptic vesicles and other materials to the soma and informs the soma of conditions at the axon terminals.
  • Axons contain microtubule-associated motor proteins that transport protein-containing vesicles between the soma and the synapses at the axon terminals.
  • The process occurring at the axon terminal is exocytosis, which a cell uses to exude secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane.
  • Regehr's laboratory specializes in pre-synaptic calcium dynamics which occurs at the axon terminals.
  • The stimuli that have traveled down the dendrites converge at the axon hillock, where they are summed to determine the neuronal response.
  • Alpha-latrotoxin found in black widow spiders causes a massive influx of calcium at the axon terminal and leads to an overflow of neurotransmitter release.
  • This all-or-nothing phenomenon originates at the axon hillock, resulting in a depolarization of the intracellular environment which propagates down the axon.
  • Like the regions of the sheath near the glial nucleus, the regions of the sheath at the axon hillocks are thicker than those surrounding the rest of the neuron.
  • If the depolarization of the neuron at the axon goes above threshold an action potential will occur that travels down the axon to the terminal endings to transmit a signal to other neurons.
  • When an action potential propagates down the motor neuron axon and arrives at the axon terminal, it causes a depolarization of the axon terminal and opens calcium channels.
  • These filaments are found in greater concentrations at the axon hillock and at the beginning portion of an axon in an SGC of the sympathetic ganglia.
  • Once the action potential is initiated (traditionally at the axon hillock), it will propagate along the axon, leading to release of neurotransmitters at the synaptic bouton to pass along information to yet another adjacent neuron.
  • Before considering the propagation of action potentials along axons and their termination at the synaptic knobs, it is helpful to consider the methods by which action potentials can be initiated at the axon hillock.
  • One proposed mechanism involves the accumulation of myelin debris at the axon, suggesting that the inflammatory environment may be conducive to remyelination, as does the release of growth factors by inflammatory cells and activated microglia.
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